Biogas Enrichment using PSA Technique

Pressure swing adsorption, also known as carbon molecular sieves, is one of most popular biogas upgrading techniques. A typical PSA system is composed of four vessels in series that are filled with adsorbent media which is capable of removing water vapor, CO2, N2 and O2 from the biogas stream. During operation, each adsorber operates in an alternating […]

Applications of Biogas

The most common method for utilization of biogas in developing countries is for cooking and lighting, especially in rural areas. Conventional gas burners and gas lamps can easily be adjusted to biogas by changing the air to gas ratio. Burning biogas in a boiler is an established and reliable technology. Low demands are set on the […]

Clean Energy in Germany

Germany is one of the world’s most prolific users of clean energy for power, heating, and transport. Germany has rapidly expanded the use of clean energy which now contributes almost one-fourth to the national energy mix. Renewable energy contribute as much as one-fourth of the primary energy mix and the country has set a goal […]

Quick Summary of Waste-to-Energy Processes

A wide variety of waste-to-energy processes are available for realizing the potential of waste as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts of municipal and industrial waste. These methods can be broadly divided into thermal and biological processes. Some […]

Biogas from Industrial Wastes

Biogas (or anaerobic digestion) technology is an attractive way to manage organic wastes in a sustainable manner. Organic waste includes a wide range of organic materials obtained from domestic, industrial and commercial operations. Most of the organic waste generated in developing countries is dumped into the landfills where it is not only responsible for large-scale greenhouse gas […]

Biomass Conversion Technologies

Biomass conversion technologies can be tailored for rural or urban environments, and utilized in domestic, commercial or industrial applications. A wide range of technologies are available for realizing the potential of biomass as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts […]

Benefits of Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a well-proven and widely popular organic waste management technology having multiple environmental, energy, economic and social benefits. Anaerobic digestion (also known as AD)  is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. It is a reliable technology for the treatment […]

Cleantech Investment in Germany

Germany is one of the world’s third largest market for renewable energy investment which totalled $15.2 billion in 2016. Germany spent 25 billion euros ($26 billion) on renewable energy in 2016, most of which—23 billion euros— consumers paid through a surcharge on their electricity bills. Germany’s plan to phase out all 17 of its nuclear […]

Working of Modern Biogas Plants

An anaerobic digestion plant is a decentralized energy system, which can lead to self-sufficiency in heat and power needs, and at the same time reduces environmental pollution. The components of a modern anaerobic digestion plant include: manure collection system, anaerobic digester, effluent treatment plant, gas holder, and electricity generating equipment. The fresh organic waste is stored […]

Ultrasound-Activated Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

Ultrasonic disintegration is a method for breakup of microbial cells to extract intracellular material. Ultrasound-activated sewage sludge disintegration could positively affect anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at sewage treatment plants (STPs). Due to sludge disintegration, organic compounds are transferred from the sludge solids into the aqueous phase resulting in an enhanced biodegradability. Therefore disintegration of sewage […]

Food Waste Management Scenario

Food waste is an untapped energy source that mostly ends up rotting in landfills, thereby releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Food waste is difficult to treat or recycle since it contains high levels of sodium salt and moisture, and is mixed with other waste during collection. Major generators of food wastes include hotels, restaurants, […]

Disposal of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Palm Oil processing gives rise to highly polluting wastewater, known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), which is often discarded in disposal ponds, resulting in the leaching of contaminants that pollute the groundwater and soil, and in the release of methane gas into the atmosphere. Properties of POME POME is an oily wastewater generated by […]

Waste to Energy in Jordan

Waste-to-energy is getting increasing attention in Jordan because of the cheap and abundant availability of a wide range of biomass feedstock, including municipal solid waste, sewage, industrial waste etc. Municipal solid wastes represent the best feedstock for waste to energy plants  in Jordan. In terms of quantity per capita and constituents, the waste generated in […]

Biomass Resources in MENA Region

In addition to tremendous solar and wind potential, MENA region also has abundant biomass energy resources which have remained unexplored to a great extent. MENA region offers almost 45 percent of the world’s total energy potential from all renewable sources that can generate more than three times the world’s total power demand.  Biomass potential in the Euro-Mediterranean region is […]

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy (usually mechanical and thermal) in a single, integrated system. In conventional electricity generation systems, about 35% of the energy potential contained in the fuel is converted on average into electricity, whilst the rest is lost as waste heat. CHP systems […]

Biomass Energy Prospects in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia, with its abundant biomass resources, holds a strategic position in the global biomass energy atlas. There is immense potential of biopower in Southeast Asian countries due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of wastes such as agricultural residues, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. The rapid economic growth and industrialization in […]

Bioenergy Potential in Thailand

Thailand has tremendous biomass energy potential  with some studies projecting that biomass wastes can cover up to 15 % of the energy demand in Thailand. These estimations are primarily made from biomass waste from the extraction part of agricultural activities, and for large scale agricultural processing of crops etc. – as for instance saw and […]

Biomass Energy in the Philippines

Like any developing country, the Philippines is facing a formidable challenge of fostering sustainable energy options to support the energy requirements of its economic and social development goals with minimal adverse effects on the environment. In the Philippines, renewable energy sources contribute 43 percent to the country’s primary energy mix, one of the highest in […]

Biogas from Food Wastes

Food waste holds one of the highest biogas potential among different organic substrates as it contains high amount of carbon and can be efficiently converted into biogas and organic fertilizer. Food waste can either be utilized as a single substrate in a biogas plant, or can be co-digested with organic wastes like cow manure, poultry […]

Pathways for Waste-to-Energy Conversion

The conversion of waste-to-energy can proceed along three main pathways – thermochemical, biochemical and physicochemical. Thermochemical conversion, characterized by higher temperature and conversion rates, is best suited for lower moisture feedstock and is generally less selective for products. On the other hand, biochemical technologies are more suitable for wet wastes which are rich in organic […]

Renewable Energy in Jordan – Potential and Progress

Jordan is heavily dependent on oil imports from neighbouring countries to meet its energy requirements. The huge cost associated with energy imports creates a financial burden on the national economy. Electricity demand is growing rapidly, and the Jordanian government has been seeking ways to attract foreign investment to fund additional capacity. In 2008, the demand […]

Hydrogen Sulphide Removal from Biogas

Hydrogen sulphide, a major contaminant in biogas, is both poisonous and corrosive, and causes significant damage to piping, equipment and instrumentation. The concentration of various components of biogas has an impact on its ultimate end use. While boilers can withstand concentrations of H2S up to 1000 ppm, and relatively low pressures, internal combustion engines operate best when […]

Biomass Energy Prospects in Malaysia

Biomass is one of the most important sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. The National Biofuel Policy, launched in 2006 encourages the use of environmentally friendly, sustainable and viable sources of biomass energy. Under the Five Fuel Policy, the government of Malaysia has identified biomass as one of the potential renewable energy. Malaysia produces atleast […]

Alternative Energy and the Energy Crisis

Everyone knows that there is a limited supply of fossil fuel left on Earth and this may pose a big problem in the future. This issue is not only a major concern for the big corporations and businesses, but is also affecting the masses too. With the recent energy price hike, people are now looking […]

Output from a Biogas Plant

A biogas plant produces two outputs, biogas and digestate; both can be further processed or utilized to produce secondary outputs. Biogas can be used for producing electricity and heat, as a natural gas substitute and also a transportation fuel. A combined heat and power plant system (CHP) not only generates power but also produces heat […]

Management of Organic Industrial Wastes

Organic industrial wastes includes a wide range of organic materials obtained from industrial and commercial operation. These organic wastes, either liquid or solid, are a good substrate for biogas generation by making use of the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion of organic industrial waste is fast gaining popularity worldwide. Sources of Organic Industrial Wastes Many […]

Clean Energy from Food Wastes

The waste management hierarchy suggests that reduce, reuse and recycling should always be given preference in a typical waste management system. However, these options cannot be applied uniformly for all kinds of wastes. For examples, organic waste is quite difficult to deal with using the conventional 3R strategy. Of the different types of organic wastes […]

Biomass Energy Outlook for Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia, with its abundant biomass resources, holds a strategic position in the global biomass energy atlas. There is immense potential of biopower in Southeast Asian countries due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of wastes such as agricultural residues, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. The rapid economic growth and industrialization in […]

Rational Approach to Agricultural Waste Management

Traditional methods of farm waste management are unscientific and have several negative externalities associated with them. Being the emitter of stock pollutants, like CO, SOx, NOx, PAHs, and aerosols, which accumulates in the atmosphere, traditional practices have a regional impact apart from local damage. Crop burning decrease the fertility of soil. To meet increasing market demand […]

Biological Desulphurization of Biogas

Biogas basically consists of methane and carbon dioxide. In addition, it also contains unwanted contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Hydrogen sulfide mainly occurs because of the degradation of sulfur-containing proteins (e.g. methionine and cysteine) or the desulfurization of sulfates. The fermentation of manure and other organic wastes shows typical H2S concentrations in the range of […]

Overview of Biomass CHP

Biomass CHP is the simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy (usually mechanical and thermal) in a single, integrated system using biomass wastes. Biomass conversion technologies transform a variety of wastes into heat, electricity and biofuels by employing a host of strategies. Conversion routes are generally thermochemical or biochemical, but may also include chemical and physical. […]

Bioenergy in South Africa

South Africa is endowed with abundant renewable resources in the form of biomass, solar and wind energy. The Government’s White Paper on Renewable Energy Policy, released in 2003, supports the development of alternative energy systems with an ambitious target of generating 10,000 GWh green electricity by 2013. The introduction of Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff (REFIT) has […]

Biomass Energy Resources in Malaysia

Malaysia is gifted with conventional energy resources such as oil and gas as well as renewables like hydro, biomass and solar energy. Malaysia’s commercial demand for energy is projected to continue its upward trend, from 1,244 PetaJoule (PJ) in 2000 to an estimated 2,218 PJ in 2010. This consumption growth is mainly driven by industrialisation. […]

Biogas from Food Waste

Food waste management is a big problem in all countries, especially affluent ones. There are numerous places which generate large amounts of food waste including hotels, restaurants, malls, residential societies, canteens, airline caterers, markets etc. A proper food waste management strategy needs to be devised for them to make sure that either they are disposed off […]

What is Biomethane

The typical composition of raw biogas does not meet the minimum CNG fuel specifications. In particular, the CO2 and sulfur content in raw biogas is too high for it to be used as vehicle fuel without additional processing. Biogas that has been upgraded by removing H2S, moisture and carbon dioxide is known as biomethane. Biomethane is […]

Anaerobic Digestion and Rural Development

The rural population of developing countries exhibit unique resource optimization capabilities as compared to urban populations. Tracts of land are cultivated and cattle are reared and the produce is sold off in the market or consumed. The wastes generated from crop cultivation and rearing animals are also utilised domestically. While the dung of animals is […]

Biogas Cleanup Methods

Cleanup of biogas is primarily achieved by carbon dioxide removal which enhances the energy value of the gas to give longer, driving distances with a fixed gas storage volume. Removal of carbon dioxide also provides a consistent gas quality with respect to energy value. The latter is regarded to be of great importance from the vehicle […]

Low Pressure Storage of Biogas

Selection of an appropriate biogas storage system makes a significant contribution to the efficiency and safety of a biogas plant.  A biogas storage system compensates fluctuations in the production and consumption of biogas as well as temperature-related changes in volume. There are two broad categories of biogas storage systems: Internal Biogas Storage Tanks are integrated into […]

Biogas from Leather Industry Wastes

The conventional leather tanning technology is highly polluting as it produces large amounts of organic, inorganic and other types of harmful pollutants. Wastes generated by the leather processing industries pose a major challenge to the environment. According to conservative estimates, about 600,000 tons per year of solid waste are generated worldwide by leather industry and […]