Disposal of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Palm Oil processing gives rise to highly polluting wastewater, known as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), which is often discarded in disposal ponds, resulting in the leaching of contaminants that pollute the groundwater and soil, and in the release of methane gas into the atmosphere. Properties of POME POME is an oily wastewater generated by […]

Waste to Energy in Jordan

Waste-to-energy is getting increasing attention in Jordan because of the cheap and abundant availability of a wide range of biomass feedstock, including municipal solid waste, sewage, industrial waste etc. Municipal solid wastes represent the best feedstock for waste to energy plants  in Jordan. In terms of quantity per capita and constituents, the waste generated in […]

Biogas from Food Wastes

Food waste holds one of the highest biogas potential among different organic substrates as it contains high amount of carbon and can be efficiently converted into biogas and organic fertilizer. Food waste can either be utilized as a single substrate in a biogas plant, or can be co-digested with organic wastes like cow manure, poultry […]

Applications of Biogas

The most common method for utilization of biogas in developing countries is for cooking and lighting. Conventional gas burners and gas lamps can easily be adjusted to biogas by changing the air to gas ratio. Burning biogas in a boiler is an established and reliable technology. Low demands are set on the biogas quality for this […]

Biogas from Industrial Wastes

Organic waste includes a wide range of organic materials obtained from domestic, industrial and commercial operation. Most of the organic waste generated in developing countries is dumped into the landfills where it is not only responsible for large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, but also becomes a health hazard and creates all sorts of pollution. Source of Organic Wastes […]

Hydrogen Sulphide Removal from Biogas

Hydrogen sulphide, a major contaminant in biogas, is both poisonous and corrosive, and causes significant damage to piping, equipment and instrumentation. The concentration of various components of biogas has an impact on its ultimate end use. While boilers can withstand concentrations of H2S up to 1000 ppm, and relatively low pressures, internal combustion engines operate best when […]

Quick Glance at MSW-to-Energy Systems

Reduction in the volume and mass of solid waste is a crucial issue especially in the light of limited availability of final disposal sites in many parts of the world. Waste-to-Energy (WTE) or Energy-from-Waste (EfW) is the use of modern combustion and biochemical technologies to recover energy, usually in the form of electricity and steam, from urban […]

Biogas Enrichment using PSA Technique

Pressure swing adsorption, also known as carbon molecular sieves, is one of most popular biogas upgrading techniques. A typical PSA system is composed of four vessels in series that are filled with adsorbent media which is capable of removing water vapor, CO2, N2 and O2 from the biogas stream. During operation, each adsorber operates in an alternating […]

Biomass Conversion Technologies

Bioenergy generation can be tailored to rural or urban environments, and utilized in domestic, commercial or industrial applications. A wide range of technologies are available for realizing the potential of biomass as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts of […]

Output from a Biogas Plant

A biogas plant produces two outputs, biogas and digestate; both can be further processed or utilized to produce secondary outputs. Biogas can be used for producing electricity and heat, as a natural gas substitute and also a transportation fuel. A combined heat and power plant system (CHP) not only generates power but also produces heat […]

Management of Organic Industrial Wastes

Organic industrial wastes includes a wide range of organic materials obtained from industrial and commercial operation. These organic wastes, either liquid or solid, are a good substrate for biogas generation by making use of the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion of organic industrial waste is fast gaining popularity worldwide. Sources of Organic Industrial Wastes Many […]

Clean Energy from Food Wastes

The waste management hierarchy suggests that reduce, reuse and recycling should always be given preference in a typical waste management system. However, these options cannot be applied uniformly for all kinds of wastes. For examples, organic waste is quite difficult to deal with using the conventional 3R strategy. Of the different types of organic wastes […]

Rational Approach to Agricultural Waste Management

Traditional methods of farm waste management are unscientific and have several negative externalities associated with them. Being the emitter of stock pollutants, like CO, SOx, NOx, PAHs, and aerosols, which accumulates in the atmosphere, traditional practices have a regional impact apart from local damage. Crop burning decrease the fertility of soil. To meet increasing market demand […]

Quick Summary of Waste-to-Energy Processes

A wide variety of conversion methods are available for realizing the potential of waste as an energy source, ranging from very simple systems for disposing of dry waste to more complex technologies capable of dealing with large amounts of industrial waste.  These methods can be broadly divided into thermal and biological processes. Some of the […]

Benefits of Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. It is a reliable technology for the treatment of wet, organic waste.  Organic waste from various sources is biochemically degraded in highly controlled, oxygen-free conditions circumstances resulting in the production of biogas […]

Ultrasound Activated AD of Sludge

Anaerobic digestion process comprises of four major steps – hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The biological hydrolysis is the rate limiting step and pretreatment of sludge by chemical, mechanical or thermal disintegration can improve the anaerobic digestion process. Ultrasonic disintegration is a method for breakup of microbial cells to extract intracellular material. Ultrasound activated sludge […]

Food Waste Management Scenario

Food waste is an untapped energy source that mostly ends up rotting in landfills, thereby releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Food waste is difficult to treat or recycle since it contains high levels of sodium salt and moisture, and is mixed with other waste during collection. Major generators of food wastes include hotels, restaurants, […]

Biogas from Food Waste

Food waste management is a big problem in all countries, especially affluent ones. There are numerous places which generate large amounts of food waste including hotels, restaurants, malls, residential societies, canteens, airline caterers, markets etc. A proper food waste management strategy needs to be devised for them to make sure that either they are disposed off […]

What is Biomethane

The typical composition of raw biogas does not meet the minimum CNG fuel specifications. In particular, the CO2 and sulfur content in raw biogas is too high for it to be used as vehicle fuel without additional processing. Biogas that has been upgraded by removing H2S, moisture and carbon dioxide is known as biomethane. Biomethane is […]

Anaerobic Digestion and Rural Development

The rural population of developing countries exhibit unique resource optimization capabilities as compared to urban populations. Tracts of land are cultivated and cattle are reared and the produce is sold off in the market or consumed. The wastes generated from crop cultivation and rearing animals are also utilised domestically. While the dung of animals is […]

Low Pressure Storage of Biogas

Selection of an appropriate biogas storage system makes a significant contribution to the efficiency and safety of a biogas plant.  A biogas storage system compensates fluctuations in the production and consumption of biogas as well as temperature-related changes in volume. There are two broad categories of biogas storage systems: Internal Biogas Storage Tanks are integrated into […]

Biogas from Leather Industry Wastes

The conventional leather tanning technology is highly polluting as it produces large amounts of organic, inorganic and other types of harmful pollutants. Wastes generated by the leather processing industries pose a major challenge to the environment. According to conservative estimates, about 600,000 tons per year of solid waste are generated worldwide by leather industry and […]